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HMA | Ground School Training -Phase 2 Review, Tips + Notes

by Visnu

After my previous post reviewing 4 other core subjects in phase 1. Now it’s time for phase 2.

A dream doesn’t become reality through magic; it takes sweat, determination and hard work

Exactly after 12 weeks of sitting in a classroom for 8 hours a day we have finally reached the end of phase 2. EASA Final License examination ended on the 27 December. After passing all the paper in one go its a huge relieve for me that I don’t have to look back at this subjects anymore.


Phase 2 Subjects are:

  1. Meteorology
  2. Instruments
  3. Performance
  4. Human Performance & Limitations
  5. Mass & Balance

I assume that some of you haven’t read post on phase 1. So let me brief abit about in house test conduct in HM Aerospace. Phase 1 Blog

After every syllabus, a quiz known as Progress Test (PT) will be conducted to assess student’s learning & performance. This will give a whole picture on how would your final results would be. Even though this results do not carry to your finals they are very important as those reports will be sent to your airlines if you are an airline cadet.


Final EASA Result. Phase 1 & Phase 2 Combined




Trial Exam result.


Personally I would say that this is one of the hardcore subject in Phase 2. The syllabus is so vast that the number of questions in Aviation exam is about 2000+. Tips to master it is, you should really put on more effort in getting the basics right as this will be applied in later chapters such as global climatology and METAR.

Notes: Meteorology Notes ( Click Here)

The basics chapters are:

  • The Atmosphere
  • Winds
  • Fronts
  • Pressure System
  • Clouds
  • International Standard Atmosphere
  • Precipitation
  • Thermodynamics
  • Reading Forecasts ( TAF SPECI etc)
  • Jetstreams
  • CAT
  • Mountainous Areas
  • TRS Tropical Revolving Storm
  • Thunderstorm
  • Icing

If you have a hard time to memorize, create some mnemonics or you may contact me for the notes which I have included the mnemonics in it.

Note: Get familiar with the world map. I got a place called Palma De Marseille, Nice, South Italy.

I really made a lot of my handwritten notes based on the pro pilot, oxford textbook and meteorologist youtube videos which gave me a solid foundation for this subject. I would suggest that its best do your own notes rather than just mugging up. Meteorology is not a mugging up subject

The total number of questions is 84 and the time is given 2hrs. Sleepless nights paid off our efforts for this paper.

Personally, I feel lucky because we have a really good and well-experienced instructor who was teaching us this subject. So we got a good catch-up on it and I didn’t even fail any of the PTs and the trial paper.


This is my Progress Test Result for Meteorology. Final Results: 84%



This is a subject where EASA expects you to learn how a cockpit instrument works or how to operate it.

A total number of 60 questions with 1hr 30min. I managed to complete within 25 minutes.

I found out that, some of the chapters such as IRS, INS, FMS are quite tough. Don’t get confused within the input and output of all the instruments as they are mostly the same.

Notes: Basic Instrument Notes ( Click Here)

Focus on these topics:

  • Sensors & Instruments
  • Measurement Of Air Data Parameters
  • INS & IRS
  • AFCS
  • Yaw Damper
  • Auto-throttle
  • FMS
  • EFIS
  • Alerting Systems & Proximity Systems

Instrument Progress Test Result. Finals: 93%


Performance is a subject where you learn principles of flight in detail. The total number of questions is 35 and you may get up to 5-8 graph questions which may carry more marks depending on the difficulty. The graph questions are based on CAP 698

I almost failed this paper. My finals mark was 75%. I believe that I made a mistake in the graph plotting section which I was inconfident about.

Total time: 1hr ( Not sufficient)

Try to finish the theory parts within the first 15 minutes. So that you will have enough time for the graph plotting & calculation. A recent update from the juniors were, EASA updated subjective questions.

This subject is all about how to improve an aircraft take-off, landing, en-route, or climbing performance and there will be a bit of air law.

Notes: Performance Notes ( Click Here)

So to score this paper the questions are mostly from

  • Class A Take-Off
  • General Principles
  • Focus On All Graphs and make sure you know the corrections intended for each graph

To really understand the graph and theory part, do this:

Avex has a filter option with/without figures;

  1. First, do all questions without figures which are non-graph questions
  2. Then do just the graph questions. By this, you will get a better comparison and understanding

Progress test marks. Finals: 75%

The theory part is sometimes confusing, such as if tailwind reduces climbing performance, so the trick is to open the climb performance graph and check whether the tailwind reduces or increases the performance. You don’t have to memorize every single thing. Be smart and focus more on other hardcore subjects.

Human Performance & Limitation

As a student with a science stream background during SPM and matriculation, and a person who was not fond of Biology, this subject wasn’t a good go for me.

They are divided into 2 parts

Physiology & Psychology

50 Questions and 1 hr will be given

Notes: HPL Notes Physiology Only ( Click Here)

The harder part would be the physiology part where you need to understand and memorize the facts.


Final 83%


  1. TUC
  2. Disturbance Altitudes
  3. Ears & Functions
  4. Eyes
  5. Sleep & Stages
  6. Stress
  7. Automation Negativity

There is nothing much to talk about this subject.


Mass & Balance

Just mathematics about load and c calculation. Easiest of All in phase 2. But easy to pass and fail due to the number of questions

Total of 25 questions & 1hr


Final 87%

Memorize the formula from these pages:

  1. Pg 38 ( Oxford Book)
  2. Pg 43 (Oxford Book)
  3. Pg 65 (Oxford book)
  4. Pg 72 (the 3 bullet-ed formulas)

For the theory part, it was just POF and Flight OPS (Pg 1-14). Aviation Exam is sufficient for that while some other information’s are already have been provided in your CAP 696
So there you go, guys, that’s it for phase 2. If you need more information notes or guidance regarding any of these subjects you may contact me. I wish you the best of luck and take this course seriously. Passing all the papers in one go would be the best feeling ever & also a good record for your future.



Moments before our last paper instrumentation


Day 1: Performance (2-3pm), HPL ( 3.30-4.30pm)

Day 2: Met (9-11am), M&B( 11.30-2.30), INS( 2-3.30pm)

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Aiddil Voo March 1, 2023 - 4:18 pm

Hi Visnu, just wanted to say thank you so much for uploading these notes on yr website, IT HELPS A LOT and it’s much easier to understand especially Met!! Still got 3 papers hopefully everything goes as planned! Wish me luck and thank you

Visnu March 1, 2023 - 6:56 pm

All The Best On Your Remaining Papers

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