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HMA | Ground School Training – Phase 3 Review, Tips + Notes

by Visnu

So to give you a little background On ground school & if you have not read any of my previous post about phase 1 & 2 here you go:

  1. HMA | Ground School Training-Phase 1 Review | Tips + Notes
  2. HMA | Ground School Training -Phase 2 Review | Tips + Notes

In HMA the ground school training is divided into 3 phases: phase 1, 2, 3. After going thru this challenging ground school we have finally come to an end.

PHASE 3 consists of 5 Subjects:

  1. General Navigation
  2. Flight Planning & Monitoring
  3. Radio Navigation
  4. Operation Procedures
  5. Air law 1 & 2

Basically phase 3 in HMA is mostly towards navigation subjects which is not hard. Don’t listen to people when they say General Navigation is hard, there is a way of studying for every subject. For example, you cannot be memorizing mathematics but you should be doing practices . Am I right? So moving on I’ll be giving my review, tips & notes on all these 4 main subjects including Airlaw  1& 2. Let’s start off with General Navigation.

The More You Sweat In Peace, The Less You Bleed In War – Capt Pravesh

My Final’s Result

AIR LAW 1: 100%
AIR LAW 2: 95%


General Navigation is easy. You just need enough practice, memorize the properties and know how to differentiate between the charts. Before moving further.  Failed badly in my first few PT’s(progress test) because we were in honeymoon or also can be called as last phase syndrome. But ended up well in finals because General Navigation became my favorite subject under the lesson with capt Rana . If you are facing a hard time answering altimetry refer to my summarized notes which are very helpful. For finals, the question was mostly answerable, and direct questions. As I always say be prepared.

What to focus on General Navigation

  1. Master the CRP-5 (It should be in your blood)
  2. The Solar System
  3. Time & Conversions
  4. Direction
  5. Distance (Especially the 4 point departure)
  6. Magnetism & Compasses
  7. Charts
  8. Dead Reckoning Navigation
  9. In-Flight Navigation
  • Focus more on formulas and 1-60 Rule
  • These are the things which have to focus more and pay attention to And the theory part please master it
  • As I say General Navigation is easy & Practice makes perfect.

For Notes: General Navigation (Click Here)

Solutions for challenging questions: Question & Solution (Click Here)


RA is a subject where we learn how navigation is done based on radio stations & instruments. All we learn is the frequency & bandwidth it is allocated, the working principle, how to read the instruments and etc. Interesting subject and fun to learn. Focus more on GPS.

Main Areas:

  1. Basic Radio Propagation Theory
  2. The frequencies
  3. VDF
  4. VOR/Doppler VOR
  5. NDB/ADF
  6. DME
  7. ILS
  8. MLS
  9. All Radar
  10. Area Navigation ( Mostly FMS & Modes very important)
  11. GNSS
  • ILS- Maker Beacons Frequency And Colour
  • GNSS
  • FMS- The 6 pictures and modes and their details

For Notes: Radio Navigation Notes Compiled (Click Here)


In-flight planning, I would suggest one thing which is don’t over-study. I scored 89% on my license examination.

Focus More:

  • Fuel Penalty Questions (Solutions Included In My notes)

But still, I did all as practice

  1. Do all VFR & IFR charts ( took me about 16 hrs)
  2. Pre-Flight Preparation
  3. ICAO (Flight Plan)
  4. Flight Monitoring & In-Flight Replanning

As a responsible cadet don’t mark your Jeppeson Charts.


  • GSPRM Charts if your Jeppesen is not GSPRM
  • Graphs that are not in CAP697

For Notes: Flight Planning (Click Here)

Operational Procedures

Operational Procedures Are Fun and Are a Necessity When working in the real world.

Very Useful: Operational Procedures Summary ( Click Here)

Air law 1&2

Study both the MCAR 1996/2016 and Rules Of The Air. Mainly on marshaling and light signals are important.


  1. AIR LAW 1: 100%
  2. AIR LAW 2: 95%

So there you go guys, that’s all the review and tips I can provide throughout my journey in ground school. I hope it helps in your preparation and good luck.

Visnu Rathinam “Callsign MAHA734”
Officially signing off from ground school.

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