HMA | Ground School Training – Phase 3 Review, Tips + Notes

So to give you a little background On ground school & if you have not read any of my previous post about phase 1 & 2 here you go:

  1. HMA | Ground School Training-Phase 1 Review | Tips + Notes
  2. HMA | Ground School Training -Phase 2 Review | Tips + Notes

In HMA the ground school training is divided into 3 phases: phase 1, 2, 3. After going thru this challenging ground school we have finally come to an end.

PHASE 3 consists of 5 Subjects:

  1. General Navigation
  2. Flight Planning & Monitoring
  3. Radio Navigation
  4. Operation Procedures
  5. Air law 1 & 2

Basically phase 3 in HMA is mostly towards navigation subjects which is not hard. Don’t listen to people when they say General Navigation is hard, there is a way of studying for every subject. For example, you cannot be memorizing mathematics but you should be doing practices . Am I right? So moving on I’ll be giving my review, tips & notes on all these 4 main subjects including Airlaw  1& 2. Let’s start off with General Navigation.

The More You Sweat In Peace, The Less You Bleed In War – Capt Pravesh

My Final’s Result

AIR LAW 1: 100%
AIR LAW 2: 95%


General Navigation is easy. You just need enough practice, memorize the properties and know how to differentiate between the charts. Before moving further. I didn’t study at all during the first few weeks of phase 3. I was having this thing called “last phase syndrome”. Failed badly in my first few PT’s(progress test). But ended up well in finals because General Navigation became my favorite subject and I became pro in it. Not to boast I taught 3 of my friends which they all passed as well. If you are facing a hard time answering altimetry refer to my summarized notes which are very helpful. For finals, the question was mostly answerable, and direct questions. As I always say be prepared.

What to focus on General Navigation

  1. Master the CRP-5 (It should be in your blood)
  2. The Solar System
  3. Time & Conversions
  4. Direction
  5. Distance (Especially the 4 point departure)
  6. Magnetism & Compasses
  7. Charts
  8. Dead Reckoning Navigation
  9. In-Flight Navigation
  • Focus more on formulas and 1-60 Rule
  • These are the things which have to focus more and pay attention to And the theory part please master it
  • As I say General Navigation is easy & Practice makes perfect.

For Notes: General Navigation (Click Here)

Solutions for challenging questions: Question & Solution (Click Here)


RA is a subject where we learn how navigation is done based on radio stations & instruments. All we learn is the frequency & bandwidth it is allocated, the working principle, how to read the instruments and etc. Interesting subject and fun to learn. Focus more on GPS.

Main Areas:

  1. Basic Radio Propagation Theory
  2. The frequencies
  3. VDF
  4. VOR/Doppler VOR
  5. NDB/ADF
  6. DME
  7. ILS
  8. MLS
  9. All Radar
  10. Area Navigation ( Mostly FMS & Modes very important)
  11. GNSS
  • ILS- Maker Beacons Frequency And Colour
  • GNSS
  • FMS- The 6 pictures and modes and their details

For Notes: Radio Navigation Notes Compiled (Click Here)


In-flight planning, I would suggest one thing which is don’t over-study. I scored 89% in my license examination.

Focus More:

  • Fuel Penalty Questions (Solutions Included In My notes)

But still, I did all as practice

  1. Do all VFR & IFR chart ( took me about 16 hrs)
  2. Pre-Flight Preparation
  3. ICAO (Flight Plan)
  4. Flight Monitoring & In-Flight Replanning

As a responsible cadet don’t mark your Jeppeson Charts.


  • GSPRM Charts if your Jeppesen is not GSPRM
  • Graphs that are not in CAP697

For Notes: Flight Planning (Click Here)

Operational Procedures

Operational Procedures Is Fun and Is a Necessity When working in the real world.

Very Useful: Operational Procedures Summary ( Click Here)

Air law 1&2

I expect that your school will have all the compilation of past year questions which will be very helpful.

Study both the MCAR 1996/2016 and Rules Of The Air. Mainly on marshaling and light signals are important.

  1. AIR LAW 1: 100%
  2. AIR LAW 2: 95%

So there you go guys, that’s all the review and tips I can provide throughout my journey in ground school. I hope it helps in your preparation and good luck.

Visnu Rathinam “Callsign MAHA734”
Officially signing off from ground school.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *