HMA | Ground School Training – Phase 3 Review, Tips + Notes

So to give you a little background On ground school & if you have not read any of my previous post about phase 1 & 2 here you go:

  1. HMA | Ground School Training-Phase 1 Review | Tips + Notes
  2. HMA | Ground School Training -Phase 2 Review | Tips + Notes

In HMA the ground school training is divided into 3 phases: phase 1 ,2 , 3. After going thru this challenging ground school we have finally come to an end.

PHASE 3 consists of 5 Subjects:

  1. General Navigation
  2. Flight Planning & Monitoring
  3. Radio Navigation
  4. Operation Procedures
  5. Air law 1 & 2

Basically phase 3 in HMA is mostly towards navigation subjects which is not hard. Dont listen to people when they say General Navigation is hard , there is a way of studying for every subject. For example you cannot be memorizing mathematics but you should be doing practices . Am I right? So moving on I’ll be giving my review, tips & notes on all these 4 main subjects including Airlaw  1& 2. Lets start of with General Navigation.

The More You Sweat In Peace, The Less You Bleed In War – Capt Pravesh

My Final’s Result

AIRLAW 1 : 100%
AIRLAW 2 : 95%


General Navigation is easy. You just need enough practice , memorize the properties and know how to differentiate between the charts.Before moving further , firstly I would like to show my progress first in class. I didn’t study at all during the first few weeks of phase 3. I was having this thing called “last phase syndrome”. Failed badly in my first few PT’s(progress test). But ended up well in finals because General Navigation became my favorite subject and I became pro in it . Not to boast I taught 3 of my friends which they all passed as well. If you are facing hard time in answering altimetry refer to my summarized notes which is very helpful. For finals the question were mostly answerable, and direct questions . As I always say be prepared.

What to focus in General Navigation

  1. Master the CRP-5 (It should be in your blood)
  2. The Solar System
  3. Time & Conversions
  4. Direction ( Grid Navigation didn’t come out for a long time)
  5. Distance ( Especially the 4 point departure)
  6. Magnetism & Compasses (All)
  7. Charts (only Properties of chart & None of us got calculation in finals but its better to do)
  8. Dead Reckoning Navigation
  9. In-Flight Navigation
  • Focus more on formulas and 1-60 Rule
  • These are the things which have to focus more and pay attention to And the theory part please master it
  • As I say General Navigation is easy & Practice makes perfect.

For Notes: General Navigation (Click Here)

Solutions for challenging questions: Question & Solution (Click Here)


RA is a subject where we learn how navigation is done based on radio stations & instruments. All we learn is the frequency & bandwidth it is allocated , the working principle, how to read the instruments and etc. Interesting subject and fun to learn. The question in finals was 100% AE. Focus more on GPS

Main Areas:

  1. Basic Radio Propagation Theory
  2. All The frequencies (make a table & memorize)
  3. VDF
  4. VOR/Doppler VOR ( Theory Only none of us got the drawing part)
  5. NDB/ADF
  6. DME
  7. ILS
  8. MLS
  9. All Radar
  10. Area Navigation ( Mostly FMS & Modes very important)
  11. GNSS ( Make sure you answer all in AE)
  • ILS- Maker Beacons Frequency And Colour
  • GNSS- All AE question
  • FMS- The 6 pictures and modes and their details
  • Radio Navigation is also easy

For Notes: Radio Navigation Notes Compiled (Click Here)


In flight planning I would suggest one thing which is don’t over-study. The questions in aviation exam are 75% harder compared to the real exam. I scored 89% in my license examination.

You dont have to do:

  • Fuel Penalty Questions (Solutions Included In My notes)

But still I did all as practice

  1. Do all VFR & IFR chart ( took me about 16 hrs)
  2. Pre-Flight Preparation
  3. ICAO (Flight Plan)
  4. Flight Monitoring & In Flight Replanning

All the answers will be in jeppesen.


  • GSPRM Charts if your Jeppesen is not GSPRM
  • Graphs that are not in CAP697

For Notes: Flight Planning (Click Here)

Operational Procedures

This subject you just have to do aviation exam and memorise all the answers there is nothing more you can do. This subject is all about memorising. I have notes which was contributed by one our seniors in HMA which was very useful. Do AE 5-6 times then you are ready to go for the exam. If you fail then its your fault not the paper

Very Useful: Operational Procedures Summary ( Click Here)

Airlaw 1&2

I expect that your school will have all the compilation of past year questions which will be very helpful.

Study both the MCAR 1996/2016 and Rules Of The Air .Mainly on marshalling and light signals are important. Need more tips on airlaw. Feel free to contact me

We didn’t really focus for air law till the last 2 weeks before finals


  1. AIRLAW 1 : 100%
  2. AIRLAW 2 : 95%

So there you go guys ,that’s all the review and tips I can provide throughout my journey in ground school. I hope it helps in your preparation and good luck.

Visnu Rathinam “Callsign MAHA734”
Officially signing off from ground school.

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